Saturday, March 24, 2018

Time to spare? Go by air.

This Section is for my comments on the joyous art of flying. I am not a professional pilot, nor do I have thousands of hours. But that does not make my opinions and reflections worthless. I have been around a long time and you don't get old by being stupid or not learning from your own mistakes andusing the accumulated wisdom of those around you. So take these "gems" as being worth what you paid for them.
Time to spare?
Go by air.
Why go by air?

Before I get into the advice end of this, I probably need to convince you that this really is the best way to travel for fun. Consider the alternatives:
  • Drive your car, camp out.
  • Drive your car, stay in motels.
  • Drive an RV, stay on campgrounds.
  • Fly commercial, rent car, stay in motels.

If your principle reason for travel is being outdoors, fishing and camping, etc. then the first option is for you, and you probably aren't reading this anyway. So I will not comment further on that option. If your desire to travel is like ours, to see places and country, then read on.
The second option is probably cheaper than the others, but has numerous drawbacks. The travel time is much longer than by air (commercial or private) and driving is exceedingly tedious. You do have your own transportation for getting around locally, but after boring a hole in the driver seat with your butt for 2 days getting here, more driving is just what you want, isn't it? Also, you are on your own making motel reservations, finding the best places to eat, etc. If you have car trouble, you are at the mercy of the local mechanics and their reputation isn't anything to brag about.
The third option has all the drawbacks of the second option, in spades. Even longer driving times, horsing a monster around locally while seeing the sights and the ever present specter of unexpected maintenance.

The last option is the least stressful, discounting airport security procedures and lines. But it is also, the most expensive and least flexible. You must be at the airport at a time certain. Extending your stay an extra day will cost you a ton, etc..
Now, why own your own plane for travel? The reasons are many, and we feel very valid.
  • The fixed cost is comparable to owning an RV, and the maintenance is also comparable.
  • The operating cost is marginally higher than an RV per mile, but the travel time is much less. On a long trip, you may save several days over driving, along with the attendant meal and lodging expense.
  • Motel charges are higher than campgrounds, and you do have the added expense of a rental car, but the convenience and flexibility is much better.
  • Flying commercial is very inflexible unless you only wish to go to large places with many airline choices. Try setting up commercial for a trip to visit Little Big Horn.
Those are the hard pragmatic considerations. Now for the intangibles. After a few hours of driving, the scenery along the interstate all becomes the same. The tailgates of all eighteen wheelers look alike. The driver has little time to look at anything other than that tailgate. In the air, even the most empty of areas has new things to see every minute. The pilot, even without auto-pilot, has plenty of time to look at things other than the road and the panel.
I remember driving to Denver in 1962. Although I was doing 80 on the open road, I watched the mountains slowly get closer in the windshield for 4 hours. Flying from Rapid City to Sheridan, I only watched the mountains get larger for an hour. In other words, you still see it all, but it doesn't take as long. And you see a lot more of it.
Instead of seeing a gully cross the road with maybe a quick glimpse of the creek that built it, you can see the entire system from where the first washout begins to the gully with all its tributaries and it becoming a water course, creek and river. You can see a lake in its entirety, not just the parts visible from the highway. You can see the watershed feeding it and the river that empties it. You can see the resort or summer homes, marinas, sailboats, etc. and have time to take it all in. Not just a fleeting glimpse through the trees.
You can see how empty most of this country is away from the major roads. Across western Nebraska and Wyoming, there are miles and miles with the only sign of human effect being an occasional dirt road, ranch complex or stock tank. In western Kansas, the major landmarks are the grain elevators that mark every community and the scenery consists of center pivot irrigation farms.
When you arrive at your lunch stop, there is a friendly staff and a clean rest room. There is a car to drive into town for lunch and the staff will suggest a good place to eat and give directions. In small towns, the staff doesn't mind if you drive around a little bit on your way back to the airport. You never have to worry about the things you leave in the airplane, it will be just like it was when you got out.
Even on fields with self serve gas, the attendant will usually help you get to the pump and put in the gas. They will put your water bottle in the fridge while you eat lunch so that it will be cool when you leave. (Just don't forget it!)
For your overnight stops, if you call ahead no later than that morning, the FBO will normally arrange your rental car and motel reservations. We have had them bring the car to meet us as we taxi in. If you only stay overnight and don't need a car, they will call the motel for transportation when you enter the pattern, so that their shuttle will arrive by the time you can unload and hit the bathroom. If you are overnight on a weekday at small towns, the FBO will often let you keep their courtesy car overnight.
Has this sold you on travel by private plane? If so, now we get into the considerations and pitfalls of travel by private plane.
How to do it.

First you have to get the plane. If you can rent one with the time flexibility you will need, fine. But if you are serious about travel, owning your own or at least a large share of a partnership is the only way to go. 

The plane

If you are looking for a plane to travel in, there are numerous factors to consider. In no particular order; speed, range, reliability, comfort, useful load and performance.

What you need

To travel, the plane must be reliable first. You can give up some on the other qualifications to achieve this. A leather interior or fancy GPS will do you little good if you are stuck at Podunk Municipal waiting on a part unique to your plane to be manufactured from unobtainium. This argument can be extended ad nauseum, but make your own judgement.
The useful load must be enough for your normal bodies load, baggage for your intended time away from the home drome, and enough fuel for at least 2-3 hour legs with reserve. Remember also that if you travel in the summer, density altitude will get you if these considerations put you near maximum gross weight.

Speed is nice, but only meaningful for this purpose if you need to make many miles per day. If you and your partner have no need to be at work day after tomorrow, anything in the 100+ knot range will fill the bill. So what if someone in their Speedburner can cover the 250nm leg 15 minutes faster than you? Getting there is a large part of the fun in this mode of travel.
If you intend to spend 4-6 hours in the cabin on some travel days, be sure that it is comfortable. It needs to be large enough that the only parts of you touching something or each other are the parts you wish to have in constant contact. You don't want to spend that long rubbing shoulders and knees with someone in a warm to hot cockpit. It doesn't matter what kind of friends you are, three hours of that will give you a heat rash.
Getting it ready

Ask yourself over and over, "Is the plane ready? Are there any maintenance squawks or quibbles that should be taken care of before we leave?". Assuming that we are talking about your plane, you should know very well the answers. Do all the things you have been putting off before you leave.
If the trip will be around 15 flying hours, don't leave with an oil change due in 10. Change it before you leave. Be sure to take a couple of quarts with you. We change oil and filter in the 30-40 hour range. I wouldn't leave without a fresh oil change if the trip as planned would put us past 35.
Wash and wax it before you leave. The wax will make it easier to wipe off the worst of the bugs at stops along the way. Besides, you do want your bird to look as nice as possible, don't you?
Clean out the interior. Trash all the old nav logs and kneeboard charts. Hoe out all the partially eaten packages of crackers, etc. Remove all the old pamphlets and brochures from your last trip that you didn't take home for inclusion in your scrapbook. You don't need the clutter on this trip when you are looking for the next sectional.

Check your on board junk box. Two quarts of oil, plastic bags, clean rags, roll of paper towels, enough Pledge to keep the windscreen clean, fuel tester. Also, a small first aid kit. A small selection of band aids and a tube of Bacitracin or Neosporin will do.
Consider carefully the advisability of taking tools other than something like a Leatherman or Swiss Army Knife. If you have a problem at nearly any airport, someone there will help you with all the advice and tools you may need. The only scenario where you will have no other access to tools is an off airport landing on the backside of nowhere. If you only need a crescent wrench and pliers, the nearest farmer will gladly help you fix the problem. If you need to remove and tear down the engine, you cannot carry enough tools for that. 
Making the plans 

This complex task is best solved like eating pizza; one bite at a time. What is the primary destination? What other places of interest are nearby, relative to the distance to the primary? What other places are near the route?
List every place you wish to stop and then put them in some nearly geographical order. (we go here, then here, then here, etc.) Now, determine which will need a day or more to visit and which you can do in an afternoon. Consider that the best flying time is in the morning, especially in the summer. You can cover 200+ miles between breakfast and lunch, leaving you the afternoon to visit the sites.
This may entail some rearrangement of the order, but that is why you are planning in advance. There will also be places that you can do everything you wish to do on a long lunch hour and go another 200 miles before supper and overnight. At this point, you may determine that a zig zag route will make the most effective use of time, allowing you to hit more sites more efficiently than a more direct point to point route.
Now, get the sectionals for all the area you intend to cover. From a site like Airnav or Landings, you can get distances, courses and fuel stops worked out. Use the comments on Airnav and the services listed to determine fuel and lunch stops. It is better to pay a little more for gas and have a courtesy car or restaurant on field than to stop on the backside of nowhere for cheap gas and be forced to eat vending machine food. Now build your nav logs. I build one for each leg on a spreadsheet template. Then I print it out with the kneeboard format or taxi diagram from AOPA of the destination airport on the back. Add any pertinent info to the sheet for that destination, reservation confirmation numbers, name of contact at FBO, etc..
Put all the sheets in a folder in the order you will use them. Then do not forget to put them in your flight bag immediately after getting your weather briefing before initial departure.
Packing for the trip

Packing light
Since you are probably travelling in summer or at least warm weather, weight is a serious consideration. Fuel and bodies are a fixed weight, so the amount of clothing becomes the biggest weight factor you can control.
Carry comfortable, casual clothes and shoes. You can go into virtually any restaurant in jeans and jogging shoes and not be too underdressed, so do not take your best bib and tuckers. Girls, leave the dressy dresses, panty hose and heels at home.
We find that we can easily pack clothing for 4 days inside 30 pounds. This gives us a five day trip counting the clothes we wear for leg one. For longer trips, pack 3 days of clothing and plan on doing laundry on that third day. But don't forget to take an extra set of underwear and shirt or blouse. You can always wear a pair of jeans or slacks a second day while you look for the Laundromat.

Little tip; I got in the habit of wearing a different pair of shoes every day while I was in Uncle Sam's Flying Club some 40 years ago. Your feet feel better, the shoes don't smell as bad and last much longer. Consequently, I take one pair of shoes in the duffle bag and the pair on my feet when we leave. But only the one extra pair. Girls, try to limit the number of shoes you take.
Another idea is to buy T-shirts etc at some of the places you visit and on day three, do laundry and send extra clothes along with collected souvenirs, pamphlets and brochures home by mail. This will keep you close to your original weight for baggage.
What goes where?
We usually leave with a duffle bag, a tote bag and a mesh bag. Clean clothes in the duffle, shoes in the mesh and stuff in the tote. By the second day, the mesh has dirty clothes and the shoes are in the end compartments of the duffle. The plastic bags you get with your souvenirs or stuff from Wal-mart also serve well to carry shoes, dirty clothes and not quite dry swim suits from last night's visit to the hot tub.
The tote contains hard items that didn't go in a pocket of the duffle. Consider all the "stuff" that must go on any multi-day trip:
All medications taken regularly. Enough for the trip plus two days. Also, take other medical items as determined by practice. We carry a small container holding a few band aids and a tube of Bacitracin. Take a small supply of general purpose pain relief, Tylenol or Advil. Be sure you have a chapstick.
Milady's makeup and minimal haircare paraphernalia. Try to keep this to a minimum. After all, Milady is not going to a fancy dress ball. What she wears to the market will be sufficient. Most motel rooms have hair dryers now, so leave yours at home unless you can't go out in public until you blow dry your tresses.

Charger(s) for the cell phone and camera batteries. The cell phone charger is a dire necessity. Also, be sure you have a lot of roaming and long distance minutes. You will be calling day 2 destination from day 1 stop, etc. as well as calling home to check with the house/pet sitter.
Miscellaneous items to make daily life easier. These get a little more subjective. A book to read while sitting in the FBO waiting for the morning fog to burn off can be a necessity. We also carry a handful of creamer packets, having learned that the stuff with the motel coffee pot usually has enough for 1 cup.

What's in your flight bag?
Do not plan to live out of your flight bag. It is intended for the necessities of flying, not an overnight case. These are the minima:
  • The nav logs and kneeboard printouts. In a folder by probable order of use.
  • All the required sectionals. But only the required ones. If you are going to the Gulf Coast from Dallas, why do you need the Kansas City sectional?
  • AFD or Flight Guide.
  • E6B.
  • Big flashlight and small flashlight.
  • Spare batteries for all above as required.
  • Several pens

Now for some subjective items. I carry a Flight Guide with some blank pages in it. These pages are used for log times and notes. I also carry a small bag with some Advil, a chapstick, wetnaps and creamer packets. (I like some creamer in my coffee, and don't want to be without it).

Some things others carry in their flight bags, we usually leave in the airplane; headsets and clipboard. Don't leave the flight bag in the plane overnight. This is not a security matter, it is a convenience. Every time I have left it in the plane, I have wished I had it several times before the next morning. There have been times when I didn't need it, but.....

The Trip

Motels and rental cars

The first recommendation here is to give the FBO a chance. They know the best motel deals in their area and quite often have deals with one or more of the local ones. Even in the smallest towns we have overnighted in, the FBO reservations have been more than acceptable. Quite often, they will be local owned places rather than the national chains.

When you call the FBO, you should be ready for them to tell you are on your own. This is rare, it has only happened to us once. Normally, they will want to know rental car size, queen, king or double, smoking or non and the credit card number to hold the reservation. They may also ask about location preferences (Near airport or near attractions) and motel class (Motel 6 or Sheraton Inn or something in between).

We have noticed that there is a wide variety of amenities provided, even within the major chains. We have stayed in only one that I remember which had everything: Buffet breakfast, hot tub, guest laundry, refrigerator, microwave, coffee maker, hair dryer, ironing board, and it was far from the most expensive place we have stayed. All of them had some combination of these, but few have all.

The variations on the "continental" breakfast can range from a selection of bagels, pastries and a waffle maker to just coffee and donuts. If your room has a fridge and microwave, your options just expanded. Give the breakfast area a once over during check in to determine the extent of the offering. If the breakfast is of questionable sufficiency, you can hit a local supermarket for a pint of milk, some fruit and a couple of microwaveable sausage and biscuits.

Seeing the sights
In your initial planning, you had a specific purpose for each stop. If that purpose was a local attraction, also look for additional attractions nearby. From these, you can determine the time required to see what there is to see at this stop.

When you arrive, pick up all the pamphlets in the rack at the FBO that interest you. If it is an afternoon stop, that is the only chance to learn about the other attractions you will get. If you are staying overnight, hit the rack at the motel on check-in.

Our normal practice is for the Redhead to locate the local Wal-mart while I negotiate the pattern, so we know where to go to get the items we forgot to pack. Then she hits the brochure rack at the FBO. If it is an afternoon stop, we check them at lunch for any place other than the original intention that we might like to see.

For overnights, we check-in to the motel first to "freshen" up some (give Milady a chance to brush out the Dave Clark hairdo). Then go through the brochures and add any places to our original plan. Normally, we by now have a local map (from the FBO and/or the motel) and can plan the order in which we will see the sights.

For the anal retentives reading this, do not plan to the degree of; 10 minutes drive to site A, 15 minutes there, 15 minutes drive to site B, etc.. Drive time in a strange town with strange streets and traffic is highly unpredictable. That plus the scale and detail of tourist maps in no way approaches that of your sectional charts. Then, Site A may not be worth more than a "Hmm, that's neat. Drive on.". Site B may be closed on Monday, and so on.

En route considerations
Pay attention here gang, we are going to cover a lot of ground.

Do not plan your trip to the tune of: Takeoff from home drome: Day 1, 9:43:30AM, Arrival lunch stop: Day 1, 11:52:35, etc.. If you do, you will be doomed to spend the entire trip behind the curve. This is supposed to be fun, isn't it?

Do not commit to arrival times more than hours in advance. After Day 1, you will be operating from new airports with no familiarity of their operations. You may have to wait 45 minutes while the line crew gets your plane from the hangar or long term parking and fuels it. Or walk 200 yards to preflight it and sometimes schlep your bags that far. Or taxi halfway to your destination for takeoff.

So, your takeoff time will be highly variable. You can estimate that variability by being observant on arrival.
  • How diligent is the line crew? Did they meet you on arrival? Did they tie down your plane where you parked or will they be moving it to another location for the night?
  • How far from the FBO to parking? Will they bring the plane back up to the door for loading? If they let you drive the rental to the plane to unload, they will probably allow you to drive to it to load up.
  • Is the gas self serve? If so, where is the pump? Due to the fuel injected engine I fly, I don't try to fuel and then taxi to parking on arrival. It is much less strain to taxi to fuel in the morning and then re-start the cooler engine for takeoff.
  • Where will we be when we start up for takeoff relative to the end of the runway? How long a taxi and probable wait times.

Don't get your weather briefing until after everything else is done. Preflight, fueling (unless it is self serve and you will taxi over there and then to takeoff), loading, turning in the car, etc.. This way, you have a good handle on your likely takeoff time. Call the destination FBO at this time and give them your ETA. And don't forget to ask them about the local weather if there is any doubt from the briefing.

Speaking of ETA, let's talk some more about that. You can work with your E6B and the forecast winds aloft to "predict" your airspeed enroute and arrival time if you wish, but you will never make an arrival time of 11:47:32AM. The winds aloft will never be exactly as forecast. You will not make your estimated airspeed enroute +/- 0.5knots. There are too many variables involved. Go with the flow. I plan on 100knots enroute. I add .2 hours for each pattern exit and entry. I add or subtract by guess for the forecast winds aloft. This gives an ETA +/- 15 minutes and I tell the destination the longer time to the next half hour.

More important than when you get there is time en-route. If you are following this advice for traveling, you should have only enough fuel on board for your estimated time enroute plus reserve. For us, reserve is an hour. But, this brings up the question of fueling. Rule one is do not "tanker" fuel. Every pound of unnecessary weight steals climb rate and airspeed. An extra 10 gallons of fuel adds 60 pounds of extra weight. At higher density altitudes, this can mean the difference between a comfortable climb to cruising altitude or a struggle for that last 500'.

All the expensive fuel flow analyzers in the world do you no good unless you can start with full tanks. So you must learn to estimate the fuel quantities on board with a relatively high accuracy. The first step is to deliberately run a tank dry. Then carefully re-fill it noting specific fuel levels at several points in the process.
How much to the bottom of the tab? Now, add enough to reach the amount specified for the bottom of the tab. Why? If bottom of tab is 15 gallons, noting the bottom of the tab tells you that bottom of the tab means how many gallons useable at the tab and the next step tells you where 15 gallons useable really is. If you have an intermediate indicator (we have a slot in the tab which indicates "20" gallons) repeat this. Then fill to within .5 inch of top and note the total. This is your useable fuel. Within reason, both tanks should give the same results. Now you are ready for loading only enough fuel for your flight.

If it is your plane, learn how to read your fuel gauges. Learn how long it takes from a full tank before the level indicated begins to drop. Learn (for each tank) how much fuel is really in the tank when it reads 1/2 and 1/4. If you are really brave, learn exactly where the indicator is when each tank runs dry (Do not do this for both tanks on the same flight!).

Now before someone jumps my case about trusting the fuel gauges, realize that I have told you to learn what the indications mean and how fast a drop is normal. If the fuel gauge has packed it in, you should be able to recognize the difference between previously observed performance and an anomalous reading. For example, you started with a KNOWN full tank and the gauge normally begins dropping after an hour. If it drops sooner, either you are losing fuel or the gauge is wrong. Assume the former and consult your en-route alternates. If it doesn't start dropping, you must assume that the gauge is dead and you must rely on time for calculating usage from that tank. In this event, revert to pessimistic timing and minimum reserve planning.

The next factor is actual time in flight. If you took off with 3 hours fuel for what should have been a 2 hour flight, do not wait until 2 hours have gone by to assess your fuel state. I do not mean that you must note time to each checkpoint and recalculate your ETE 40 times in the 200 miles. Far from that. Know your takeoff time and when you reach a near midway checkpoint, check the time. How close to your calculated or guestimated time are you? Is the difference significant? Enough to take half of your reserve? Hit the next suitable field and get some more gas.

If you are using flight following and your progress seems significantly different from the nav log, ask Center for your ground speed. If that speed is much slower than your estimate, and will put you deep into your reserve, stop for gas. BTW, Center's speed report is possibly better than your GPS readout (if you have one) as it is averaged over several radar interrogations rather than nearly instantaneously.

The next phase of enroute re-planning is weather delays. Remember that you are "on vacation", not making business appointments. If the weather delays your departure, consult with your companion on alternatives. Do you wish to skip the next destination, abbreviate it or spend extra time there adding a full day to your trip? Is the next destination important enough to wait out the weather? If so, for how long? Is there enough there to fill an extra day or half day?

We were delayed 3 hours at Rapid City on Monday morning. Our original plan was to arrive in Sheridan, Wyoming around noon, eat lunch, and head for Little Big Horn for the afternoon, departing Sheridan Tuesday morning. We decided that we would go when the weather allowed, fill what remained of the afternoon with something else and do Little Big Horn on Tuesday morning. This worked out very well. The motel had the full scope of amenities. We found plenty to do Monday afternoon. The trip to Little Big Horn was not rushed and occupied some 6 hours, a couple of which we might not have had on the original schedule and there was enough to do around Sheridan to finish filling Tuesday. The extra day brought many new and good things. Be flexible!

Which brings us to the neatest part of this means of travel. The ability to adjust your schedule to suit the current situation. What we did with the weather delay was one thing, but far more subtle was what we did with the time in Dodge City. We arrived a little after 5:00PM and were in the motel looking at the literature by 6. We learned that Front Street, the principal attraction, was open until 8, so we headed over here. Finding that if we bought a ticket then, it would be valid the following morning to finish up, we started there. We got to see the gunfight and part of the sights before closing time.

The next morning, we had that to finish and several more things to look for. The flight home would be a little over 3 hours, so we set an arbitrary departure time not later than 2. We had seen all we intended to see by 11:30, so we departed at noon with a lunch stop in Chickasha shortly after 1. Try making that kind of adjustment to your itinerary on a commercial airline.

Or to put it simply:

Take only what you need

Don't take anything you won't need. We have a mantra as we pull out of the driveway: "From this point, if we forgot something, we either do without or buy it when we need it.". We have done both. Don't take clothes you won't wear. Don't take tools you won't use. Don't load gas you won't burn on this leg.

Look around you
You can avoid many problems and inconveniences by looking around beforehand. I discussed studying the airport environment on arrival to assess your exit strategy and checking out the motel breakfast area on check-in to assess the extent of the continental breakfast.

Apply this same strategy to the other aspects of your trip. When you arrive at the motel on laundry day, ask if they have a guest laundry. If they don't, they will normally suggest a local Laundromat. If they don't, check the yellow pages when you get to your room. Then keep your eyes open on your sightseeing for alternatives.

Be flexible
The best battle plan in the world only survives the opening salvo. Be ready to alter plans. Try to have plans with an option B. Do not stick to the original plan when it becomes inconvenient or burdensome. And most of all, if it will lead you into danger, abandon it completely.

Navigation for Dummies

This Section is for my comments on the joyous art of flying. I am not a professional pilot, nor do I have thousands of hours. But that does not make my opinions and reflections worthless. I have been around a long time and you don't get old by being stupid or not learning from your own mistakes and using the accumulated wisdom of those around you. So take these "gems" as being worth what you paid for them.

Navigation for Dummies
(Or how to get there without a GPS)
NOTE: All specific references here can be found on the DFW Sectional.

I came late in life to flying. But I didn't come to flying without the knowledge gained in that life. In deciding to continue learning to fly, we (The Redhead and I) knew that we must travel by GA to make the investment useful. That meant that we would spend much of our time going cross country. And that meant that we would have to have a GPS or learn how to navigate without it.

We both have a good sense of direction. I know that some people are "directionally challenged", but that should not be an excuse. Just as those who are "mathematically challenged" can learn to balance a checkbook well enough to keep out of trouble, those who are "directionally challenged" can learn to navigate well enough to make the food on a $100 hamburger more exciting than the getting there. It is all a matter of desire.

If you are flying VFR for fun, and have no GPS, you have 2 choices: pilotage with Navaid backup and navaids with pilotage backup. The desired route to your destination will determine which method you use on each leg. But be prepared to swap methods on any leg if necessary.

While I was learning to fly, I heard many fables about students getting lost. In some cases, getting lost, solo, on a route they had flown dual with the instructor. The reasons (excuses) offered for this make as much sense as the getting lost did. They just did not pay attention.

My CFI knew before we ever talked about XC what my goals were. I needed to have the skills to fly XC over unknown territory and the confidence to try it. He therefore, allowed me to choose all of our dual XC destinations and my own destinations for my solo flights. I chose those destinations because each would provide something different from the ones before.

The first dual XC was pilotage out and he threw an unplanned diversion for a fuel stop in for good measure. We went VOR coming back. The second flight was VOR both ways, but he insisted on my knowing where I was by pilotage all the way. I found it easy to cross check by using another VOR as well as finding landmarks.

My first solo XC was straight pilotage, follow the highway from home to destination and back. The second flight was VOR to a point then another VOR to the destination. The "long" XC was 73nm SE, 108nm NE and 70nm WSW. It was a combination pilotage, ADF, VOR and pilotage.

After this, while not brimming with confidence, I felt competent to plan and make a trip over territory I had not flown over before.

Where am I?
Most students get asked this question at least once during their training. I listened to the tales of being able to get lost in or around the training area and thought about it. When an instructor (not my regular CFI) asked me on a pseudo check ride how I would locate myself if I suddenly found myself where we were now, I told him that the condition would never arise. After I explained why I could make that statement, he accepted it and we went on. How could I make that statement? The plain fact is that if you suddenly realize that you have no idea where you are, the alarm bells should have started ringing at least 10 minutes ago. That is the time required for you to fly beyond the last recognized landmark or check point.

There are two meanings to "where am I": "where am I" and "Exactly where am I". The first can be "Somewhere between I20 and I30, headed for Tyler, TX". This is perfectly acceptable if you are tracking inbound on the Tyler VOR and know you have adequate fuel. More precise would be "I have US380 just off my right wing and I am between Denton and Decatur, headed for Bridgeport.". This is also perfectly acceptable if you are sure that you are flying west. If you are south of 380 and it is off your right wing, you ARE flying west, even if your DG is not working. "Exactly where am I" would be "Over the south end of the dam on Lake Tawakoni".

Notice that the first 2 descriptions tell more than the last one. They also indicate the knowledge that you are proceeding correctly towards your destination. It does no good to know exactly where you are if that knowledge is simply static and correct only at that precise instant.

From this, knowing exactly where you are, while important, is not as important as knowing about where you are and that you are proceeding correctly towards your destination. For VFR fun flying, the ability to plot and hold an absolutely exact course is being anal retentive to an illogical extreme.

Plot the desired course line on the sectional? Sure, especially if the primary navigational method is pilotage. Follow it +/- .5 mile? If you are on a published airway, you should. But, in general, admire the scenery and watch for traffic. If you notice the needle is approaching 2 dots off, alter course a little and go back to the scenery and traffic.

Fill out a full XC Log? Sure. Enter all the actual time of arrival, and actual ground speed blocks in flight? I only did that on my first XCs. The XC Log will have the estimated time enroute and the estimated ground speeds on it. You know when you took off, don't you? Then you can look at the ETE and total time and have a good idea about how close to the estimated times and ground speeds you are. If there is a significant difference (Murphy says it will be longer than estimated), the only concern should be fuel and whether you will arrive before the car rental closes. To me, the idea of recalculating your ground speed, fuel burn, ETE and ETA at each checkpoint is being illogically anal retentive. We're supposed to be enjoying this, aren't we? If someone is meeting you at your destination, call them at the last possible time before takeoff (after preflight, closing up the hangar, etc.) and give them a flight time from your log plus about 10 minutes per hour. That way, you will be covered if the headwind is a little stronger than anticipated, etc.

I know that some CFI old heads will take issue with the above, but this entire thing is supposed to be fun, isn't it? The entire concept of flying cross country in a GA plane for fun is that you go when you want, where you want. Aren't we trying to get away from schedules? If you are flying into Amarillo from the east, don't you want to spend some time flying along the rimrock and over Palo Duro Canyon? I did, and the controller at AMA was very understanding about it. He said, "Ok, when you are ready to come in, go to 090 at 4500' and give me a call. I'll sequence you then."

The point here is that this is supposed to be FUN! The only needs for planning and skill are what is required to keep the excitement on the fun side of the equation. Go through the complete exercise on the XC Log on your training flights. It will teach you how close you will normally be to "as planned". When your fun XCs seem to differ significantly from "as planned", you will know how to use the log to check what is happening against your "gut feel".

But it all boils down to three things: Do your homework, understand the neighborhood and find the airport.

Doing the homework
This has three parts: where to go, how to get there and getting there. The first two had better be done before you even go to the airport and will be the subject of another article. I am assuming that you have already decided where to go, so we will start with knowing the neighborhood.

Understanding the neighborhood.
The first rule is: Start big and work your way down. Start with features that are just about too big to miss. The easiest to recognize are bodies of water. In my part of the world, they are everywhere. Lakes and ponds big enough to show on the sectional can be spotted at the far edge of the current visibility. In flat terrain, their shapes can be recognized at a very shallow "look down" angle. If the shape is confusing, turn the sectional so that you are looking at it in same direction as the ground below. I.e. if you are flying south, turn the sectional upside down and look at the shape of the lake. Just be aware that in hilly country or low altitudes AGL, arms of the lake may be hidden behind bluffs, hills, etc..

Towns and urban areas are good landmarks only in open country. If the entire area below you is populated, the difference between a town (yellow on the sectional) and urban sprawl is hard to discern. If the "town" has a unique configuration of major highways, it may be easier to recognize. Practice reconciling the yellow areas on the sectional with your local area and you will get better at this.

Rivers are virtually useless as a landmark. Most rivers and waterways large enough to show on the sectional follow a meandering course. When you cross one in open country, all you really know is that you are now on the other side. Identifying a specific set of bends and bows in the river can get you lost in a hurry. On the other hand, a river coupled with a highway and bridge can locate you exactly.

Power lines, pipelines and roads are similar. It will take at least a powerline and a road (not running parallel) to locate you. But, it would still be better to identify a third item to prove the location.

But, so much for the static reading of the sectional. The process of cross country flight should be one of continually progressing from a known place to an unknown place. Which then becomes a known place from which you go to the next unknown place. Think of it as, "I just passed over Stratford, OK, (I knew where I was then) southbound and just west of that highway. The next town will be Sulphur, OK, 17nm ahead." You will be sure it IS Sulphur if it lies mainly along the east west road running through it and there is an airport about 2 nm northwest of the intersection of the 2 highways. When you have positively identified Sulphur, it now becomes the place you know as you go on to the next place.

Remember how to eat a pizza? One bite at a time. Flying cross country is the same. You always start from a known location, even if that last location was when you were number one for takeoff. For pilotage, select checkpoints which can be positively identified. Don't select a lake that will be 10 miles to one side of your course (especially into the sun) if the day is hazy. Select checkpoints for pilotage which are close enough together that you should see the next one before you are way past the previous one. Notice that I said "see", not identify. There is nothing wrong with saying, "I see a town out there right where Sulphur should be. I will assume it is Sulphur for now and positively identify it before I cover 1/2 of the distance to it.". In other words, the distance from Stratford was 17nm. I should be able to see a town ahead while still 10 miles from it. If I can't positively identify it when I am 5 miles from it, I am only 12 miles from Stratford. If I turn around, I should be able to see Stratford within 2 minutes.

Find the airport.
So, you have now gone from known to unknown, known to unknown and the next unknown is the destination airport. How do you find it? Same procedure as any other "landmark"; start big and work down.

If you have done your homework, you already know several things about the airport. Looking for a little airport should be the hardest, so we will consider that. Given a single 3500X50 runway, you are looking for a flat empty "hole" in the buildings of town, "hole" in the trees of forest, etc., that is at least 3/4 mile long and 1/4 mile wide. The sectional and your homework will tell you which way the "hole" is oriented relative to your route. And the sectional will also tell you where to look relative to town, highways, river, etc.

As mentioned above, The airport at Sulphur is 2nm NW of the center of town. You can determine this from the sectional or from Air Guide, AFD, or AOPA's Airport Directory. The sources other than the sectional mentioned will also tell you the taxiway and hangar layouts relative to the runway. The building(s) at Sulphur are located east center of the runway. At Tahlequah, OK, the buildings are located on both sides of the runway, small hangars to the west, large hangars to the east.

Knowing the location of the buildings relative to the runway will help you identify the Airport. If you see a clear area of the right size, in the right area, with some large buildings on the proper side/end of it, It is probably the airport.

Another way is to plan to cross the runway centerline (above pattern altitude) about 5 miles from the field. If you are looking in the right direction as you cross, the runway will stand out. Warning, do this only while monitoring the CTAF and having announced yourself. Straight-in landings or takeoffs may get you center-punched!

The above has assumed finding a non-towered small field. Towered fields are much easier. If you know about where you are, get the ATIS and contact the tower. They will normally ask for an Ident and then tell you where you are. I.e. "Four Lima Bravo, Ident observed, seven miles southwest of field." They will also give you a heading to enter the pattern. Especially if you tell them you do not have the field in sight.

Approach Control is even easier. They will tell you your location after squawk and vector you for sequencing. They will not normally turn you over to the tower until you report the field in sight.

And in conclusion
Don't be afraid to go cross country to new and exciting places. After all, that is most of the reason you learned to fly. And like learning to fly or eating pizza, you CAN do it one bite at a time.

How to answer questions from non-flying friends

I have collected these over the few years I have been flying. Some of them come from other people, some from my own personal experience.

A few answers to questions non-flyers typically ask in no particular order:

Q. Oh you soloed. So your instructor was right there but you were at the controls right?
A. UH, NO!!!!! That is why it is called a are solo.
Q. So you flew here? By yourself?
A. Yes.

Q. How much did it cost to land at the airport?
A. Nothing.

Q. What??? That's cheap!
A. Yeah, but it costs a bizillion dollars to get the plane in the air.
Q. Did you have to let anybody know where you were going?
A. Yes, just my wife. -or- No, did you have to tell anybody where you were going when you drove here?

Q. You didn't have to talk to anybody or get permission?
A. No, but since I flew through controlled airspace part of the time I did have to talk and get permission.

Q. Do you have to file a flight plan?
A. No

Q. What???!!!!
A. No, no flight plan is required if VFR.

Q. Isn't that dangerous?
A. Yes, it absolutely guarantees a crash.
Q. Do you fly like JFK Jr. did?
A. I hope not.
Q. What if terrorists steal the plane?
A. Sigh
Q. Do you worry about the engine stalling?
A. Nope. Engines don/'t stall they used to throw spears now they run casinos.
Q. How much does it cost?
A. Too much.

Q. What's your gas mileage?
A. About as good as your SUV.

Q. How fast can you go.
A. A LOT faster than your SUV.
Q. Can you fly to Hawaii?
A. Yes, but my arms would get tired.
Q. How long can you fly on a tank of gas?
A. Longer than your bladder can stand it.
Q. You really flew here? By yourself?
A. No, my wife flew us on her broom.
Q. What time does your flight leave?
A. When I'm ready to go, and not a second before.

Q. How do you get the airline to do that?
A. I own the airline.
Q. Isn't flying dangerous?
A. Yes it is, so is driving, what's your point?
To my wife they ask...

Q. If something happens to him can you land the plane?
A: If something happens to the crew of a big airliner, can you land the plane?
Q. Are you ever afraid?
A. No, but I told him if he kills us, I'll be very mad at him.
Q. Did the kids fly in the plane too?
A: No, we tied them to the wings. They talk too much when they're inside.
Q: How many pilots does it take to change a light bulb?
A: Just one. He holds the bulb and the world revolves around him.
Q: How do you know if a pilot is at your party?
A: They'll tell you.
Q: How do you know when you are half way through a date with a pilot?
A: Because s/he says: "That's enough about flying, now let's talk about me"!
If you have some additional material for this page, eMail it to me. However, I reserve the right to add or ignore it 8^).

Yum Yum

Here are some pithy comments on food and our experiences flying to get it.

The World's best BBQ?
Name the "Best BBQ in the country"? C'mon gang, that is an impossible task. I know, every, and I mean every, establishment and person in the world has to have one superlative claim to fame. But that ain't possible in many claims. Or it is that many claims are just too subjective to be beleivable.

Consider "The best looking woman in the world". Think about how many times you have seen some discussion around that topic. Is (was) it Jaclyn Smith? How about Elizabeth Taylor? Maybe Angelina Jolie? Kate Bosworth? Catherine Zeta-Jones? The possibilities are endless, entirely subjective and dependent on personal taste and what impressed you last.

The same with BBQ. I consider myself a connisieur of southern BBQ, and especially BBQ in the southwest. BBQ is beef brisket, slow smoked and sliced thin. Served plain with the sauce ladled on. Chopped meat stirred with sauce, served on a bun just ain't BBQ. That is MY definition, and I would expect many to disagree with it.

I have had good BBQ in many places. In the final analysis, that is the bottom line. Was it good? Was the place convenient to get to? Was the atmosphere acceptable? When we as pilots talk about BBQ, we are also talking about going to some place we haven't been before. We are going to arrive with headset hair, rumpled clothes and a severe thirst.

Is the parking lot filled with pickup trucks or limos and lexii? Is it permeated with the smell of woodsmoke and cooking meat? Inside, is the prevailing fabric used for clothing, denim or parachute cloth (or, god forbid, wool or silk)? Are the tables or booths bare or plastic covered or linen covered? If the answers are yes or column 1, you are probably in a good place. If it is weekend and you see someone in a tie, go elsewhere.

Since we will be flying home afterwards, the answer to the thirst must be iced tea (the house wine of the south). Is the glass large (12 oz or more)? Is it over cubed ice or crushed ice? Is it clear or cloudy? The answers to these must be the former in all cases. Sweetened or unsweetened is your choice.

Cafeteria style is good, but I have had good BBQ served sitdown. Meat by weight at the pit is good, but so is sliced on slapped onto your plate in front of your hungry eyes. Good coleslaw, potato salad, beans and a dill pickle only adds to the meal. If your W&B will stand it, cobbler is a nice finishing touch. Apple, peach, cherry or blackberry are all good.

Now, where can you get this? Hard 8 in Stephenville, TX. Sanderson's in Graham, TX. A place in Mineral Wells whose name escapes me, but the FBO at Kickapoo Downtown can give you directions. A place in Monticello, AR described by the local chapter of the Airport Bums Society. We have been more places, but those stand out in my memory.

Memorable Dinners
We travel, So we do a number of overnight trips. This means that we eat a number of meals that you wouldn't want to tackle on a Hamburger Run. Here then is a summary of memorable dinners we have eaten. They are arranged by state for easier reference, but the date is included so you can have some idea of the age of the information.
For those of you who live in the area of some of these, we know there may be other, perhaps better, places to eat. But first, that judgement is purely subjective and second, we were only there for a short time and couldn't visit them all.

Hilton Head Island
Marley's (3/13/06)

We found this place in spite of the map on the tourist brochure. It was definitely an upscale place with a menu (and prices) to match, but what would you expect in this place?

The food was excellent and the service was good. I had a pork tenderloin that melted in my mouth.

Peachtree City

Georgia Shrimp Company (3/11/06) 
The place is in a corner of a strip mall off the main drag. Not very visible, But right in front of us while waiting in line for tea and nuggets at the Chik Fil A drive thru. It is well worth the effort to look for if you are in the area.

As the name implies, we had shrimp. It was very lightly breaded or lightly floured (depending on the dish and very good. The meal was great in a reasonably good atmosphere with excellent service. I went for the Key Lime pie for dessert which was also good. Total bill with tip was about $40.

New Orleans
Acme Oyster Bar (3/8/04)

This place is(was) on the Ponchartrain boat basin. Katrina destroyed it, but if it is ever rebuilt, it might be worth a visit.We arrived just ahead of the dinner rush, and leisurely went through the entire ritual; appetizer, entree and dessert. All the food was excellent and the waitress was right on top of everything until the combination of the dinner rush and a waitperson that didn't come in due to an accident caused a big mess. Every effort (including the manager being on the floor) was made to cover the rush with good humor and the drop in service level was noticeable only because it had been so good.
I did the entire "cajun" thingy. Raw oysters, gumbo, and crawfish etouffe. It was all good to excellent.


King's Tavern (10/14/04) (3/7/07)

This place is "number one with a bullet" on our list of places to go. We have been twice and already have a date for late june 2009.
Both times, we have had the stuffed flounder and licked the plate. Nuff said?

Blue & White Diner (3/6/07)
 This is just a country diner. It has a full menu and plain but excellent food.

New Mexico

Stevens Grill (3/9/04)

This is the house restaurant for a nice downtown hotel. The food was very good and the atmosphere was nice.


The bowling alley cafe (6/16/05)

After pumping the lineguy and eliminating the national chains, this is what was left. The atmosphere was what would be expected from a bowling alley, but the food was something else. Typical downscale menu, but well prepared, seasoned and served. The capper was the home made Boston Cream Pie for dessert.


Burton Cafe (4/13/02)

The Burton Café is an authentic rustic downtown café, offering a simple menu and live entertainment on Saturday night. The Chicken Fried Steak is fabulous and a piece of pie later was also great. The entertainment was a couple playing an eclectic mix of music, old and new. A most enjoyable evening for less than $30 (including tip for the entertainment).

GalvestonGaidos (12/19/04)

Seafood deluxe in a very good atmosphere. Somewhat upscale, but well worth it.

Mount PleasantLuigi's

It is Italian, what else can we say? This was technically a hamburger run, but we were late enough to get the evening menu. When I jokingly told the waitress to bring the pitcher when we ordered our tea, that is just what she did. The menu was surprisingly broad and all well prepared and seasoned.

San MarcosTexas Red's (5/7/04)

Hard to find, but well worth the effort. They have cow done just about any way you could think of and what we had was excellent. Service and atmosphere were both worth the pricey menu.

FredericksburgDer Lindenbaum (3/10/05)

I had as good a Wiener Schnitzel as I have had since my time in Germany nearly 40 years ago. The raspberry cake was also good.


Sheridan Inn (6/20/05)

This was Buffalo Bills home here. The wait was long even on a Monday night, but the food and atmosphere were well worth it. I had prime rib that was mouth wateringly good.

Our best lunches
We know it is called a $100 Hamburger, but our best lunches are generally not hamburgers. Yes, we have had a lot of those, but they don't stand out in our memory. Some of the places may well be good dinner stops because of the type of place they are. Virtually all of them are local establishments, we try not to eat in national chains when we are traveling.

As we were discussing the memorable places we had been prior to starting this page, it became obvious that a number of them were sandwich shops. It is hard to beat a good sandwich for lunch. There are also a few cafes with "blue plate specials". These are probably also good dinner stops.

Many of the places we don't have a name for, but ask the guys in the FBO. That is usually how we found them.

FBO (6/24/03)

We arrived there for lunch and fuel to discover that Airnav and Flight Guide notwithstanding, there was no courtesy car. However, the FBO guy offered to fix us a hamburger. While I was gassing the bird, he fired up a grill in the hangar and fixed us two of the finest hamburgers we have ever eaten. Huge pattys done just right with limited but adequate fixins. He refused any payment, but I left him a good tip.

Don't count on this if you stop there. But it was a memorable lunch.
Monticello A barbecue place (6/10/04) Recommended by the local ABS (Airport Bum Society). On the road into town. Good BBQ with a spicy but not overpowering sauce.

The Cotton Exchange Tavern (3/13/06)

I had a bowl of clam chowder that was excellent.

The Grill on Tybee Island (3/14/06)

Good place to eat and watch a downpour. Full lunchtime menu with a limited view of the Atlantic Ocean.

Mamas Oyster House (many times)

This is our lunch stop going either way if we will be close. Try the gumbo and sandwich.

New Orleans Alex Patout's (3/7/04)

On the north shore of Ponchartrain in Mandeville. This was about the best gumbo I have ever tasted.

Minden The City Bakery (3/17/06)

Try the sandwiches on home baked, fresh sourdough bread.

The Carriage House (10/14/04) On the grounds of Stanton Hall. The wait staff wears frilly dress shirts and cummerbunds. But the food was excellent and the price was more than reasonable.

Pauls Valley
Downtown cafe (3/28/05)

A family run cafe. We had the "Blue Plate". My baked chicken was very good.

Chickasha Jakes Ribs (6/23/05)

Good barbeque. Tender juicy meat, thinly sliced (for sandwichs), mild but tasty sauce. Everybody in town was there even though it was past lunchtime.

South Carolina
Winton Inn (3/12/06)

We did the Sunday buffet. Sandra still thinks the fried chicken was the best she ever ate.

South Dakota
Cheyenne Crossing
The cafe (6/19/05)

The hamburgers were nothing really special, but they had blackberry shortcake for dessert. All we can say is Wow!

Downtown Cafe (6/14/04)

Another "Blue Plate" lunch. Food was good, then came dessert, strawberry shortcake. The cake was homemade yellow cake, the strawberries had never seen a freezer and the whipped cream did not come out of a can.

Airport Diner (3/10/05)

Authentic atmosphere of a mid 40s diner. Good food while you watch the ramp. What else can you ask?

Granbury Sandwich shop (several times)

On the southwest corner of the square. They make a good sandwich.

Graham Sandersons (11/30/02)

This is a full service restuarant and we ate there on a Sunday afternoon, so the dinner is probably good also. I had BBQ which was good lean brisket with a good sauce.
LongviewJohnny Cace's (several times)

Johnny Cace's, nuff said!
McGregorThe Coffee Shop (2/26/06)

Good downscale menu for lunch. Try the hot roast beef sandwich.
StephenvilleHard 8 BBQ (11/30/03)

Hard 8 BBQ, nuff said!
Mexican food (11/22/05)

Recommended by the FBO. Good authentic mexican food.
Catfish Plantation (4/24/05)

Good Sunday lunch if you can beat the church crowd.